Μεσογειακή διατροφή και εντερικό μικροβίωμα (Master thesis)

Χρυσουλίδου, Ειρήνη

Numerous studies have examined the links between food groups of foods and their nutrients with chronic diseases and gradually a consensus has been developed on the importance of dietary variables in the etiology of these diseases. Also in recent years the importance of the intestinal microbiome and good health has been the subject of numerous studies, while at the same time the relationship between diet and intestinal microflora has been proven. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high intake of vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts and cereals (which were largely unprocessed in the past), as well as a high intake of olive oil but a low intake of saturated lipids, moderately high intake of fish (depending on proximity to the sea), low to moderate intake of dairy products (mainly in the form of cheese or yogurt), low intake of meat and poultry. Aim The purpose of this literature is to present the findings so far on the effect of the Mediterranean diet on the diversity of the intestinal microbiome and protection against pathogenic microorganisms. Methodology This paper is a literature review in which we sought research to prove the relationship between the Mediterranean Diet and the intestinal microbiome. • The relationship between the Mediterranean diet and the intestinal microbiome • The relationship between the Mediterranean diet, the intestinal microbiome and diseases or generally unpleasant health conditions Results From the research we studied we can conclude that consumption of a high percentage of MD compatible plant foods is associated with improved microbiome-related metabolic profiles compared to those on a Western diet. Additionally the researches show that obedience to the Mediterranean diet regulates the intestinal microflora which in turn can help in a healthier aging process while those who do not follow MD show an increase in trimethylamino oxide levels in their urine. Regarding the effect of the Mediterranean diet on people with heart problems, it seems that prolonged intake of healthy food partially corrects dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome of obese people with coronary heart disease. Finally constipation relief is possible since it was observed that those who ate more plant-based diets had higher concentrations of fiber in the stool Conclusions. The general conclusion that emerge from this literature are that a “healthy” diet rich in plant foods and low in fat haw a positive effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Specifically, the adoption of the Mediterranean diet, which belongs to the above diet model, reduces cholesterol levels in obese people while changing the composition of their microbiome in such a way as to reduce the risk of inflammation. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet enhances the abundance of certain taxonomic groups that are negatively associated with inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-17. In addition, changes in the microbiome after long-term consumption of the Mediterranean diet were associated with an increase in the production of short / branched chain fatty acids and a decrease in secondary bile acids, p-cresoles, ethanol and carbon dioxide production. This diet simultaneously improves health indicators such as weakness in the elderly and relief of constipation symptoms in Parkinson's patient. Conclusions also emerge from the comparison between the two dominant diet models, the Mediterranean in relation to the Western type. People whose diet is far from the Mediterranean model, show elevated levels of trim ethylamine oxide (TMAO), which is blamed as a factor in heart disease. Adopting the Mediterranean diet approach can help improve health.
Institution and School/Department of submitter: Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης. Σχολή Επιστημών Υγείας. Τμήμα Ιατρικής
Subject classification: Nutrition
Keywords: Mediterranean diet,Intestinal microbiome,Metabolic diseases,Μεσογειακή διατροφή,Εντερικό μικροβίωμα,Μεταβολικά νοσήματα
URI: https://repo.lib.duth.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/14577
http://dx.doi.org/10.26257/heal.duth.13335
Appears in Collections:Π.Μ.Σ. ΤΡΟΦΙΜΑ, ΔΙΑΤΡΟΦΗ ΚΑΙ ΜΙΚΡΟΒΙΩΜΑ

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https://repo.lib.duth.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/14577
http://dx.doi.org/10.26257/heal.duth.13335
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