Τρόποι αντιμετώπισης ρινορραγιών (Master thesis)

Μυλωνάς, Στυλιανός

Epistaxis or nosebleeds is acute bleeding from the nostrils, nasal cavity or nasopharynx. It is a common condition and most nosebleeds resolve without any intervention. Uncontrolled nosebleeds can lead to hypovolemia and an compromised airway. Objectives. Through systematic literature review, the purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the available ways to treat epistaxis, and mentioning also epidemiology, anatomy, and possible causes of epistaxis. Methods. Articles and studies published in the English language over the last decade, were searched on the internet and in PubMed, PMC and Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews databases, with keywords related to the dissertation title. Meta-analyzes, reviews, systematic reviews, and randomized controlled trials were included, and articles inaccessible or unrelated with the dissertation title were rejected. 475 articles were found and after a thorough study of the titles, abstracts and their content, 53 were included, and the rest were rejected. Articles from Greek and foreign textbooks were also searched. The writing of the literature was based on the APA method.Results. Epistaxis can be treated with simple first aid measures, as well as with vasoconstrictor or newer drugs, such as tranexamic acid. Next step is cauterization and nasal packing, anterior or posterior, with various materials, absorbable or not. In difficult cases, surgical methods are applied, with ligation of the sphenopalatine artery being the most recommended, or embolization. Newer nasal hemostatic agents in combination with endoscopic methods have advantages over traditional methods. Conclusions. Epistaxis can be treated with plenty different methods, depending on the patient's medical history, symptomatology and clinical condition, as well as the experience and available resources of the health care providers. Hopefully, new methods can drastically reduce the appearance of nosebleeds. Keywords: nosebleeds, epistaxis, treatment, evaluation, causes, oxymetazoline, nasal cream, tranexamic acid, cauterization, silver nitrate, nasal packing, nasal tampon, inflatable balloon, dissolvable, Merocel, Rapid Rhino, hemostatic agents, Surgicel, Floseal, endovascular embolization, ligation, sphenopalatine artery, Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
Institution and School/Department of submitter: Δημοκρίτειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θράκης. Σχολή Επιστημών Υγείας. Τμήμα Ιατρικής
Subject classification: Nosebleed
Keywords: Nosebleeds,Epistaxis,Treatment of nosebleed,Ρινορραγία,Επίσταξη,Θεραπεία ρινορραγίας
URI: https://repo.lib.duth.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/17741
http://dx.doi.org/10.26257/heal.duth.16475
Appears in Collections:Π.Μ.Σ. ΡΙΝΟΛΟΓΙΑ-ΡΙΝΟΧΕΙΡΟΥΡΓΙΚΗ

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https://repo.lib.duth.gr/jspui/handle/123456789/17741
http://dx.doi.org/10.26257/heal.duth.16475
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